The literal meaning of Geography is the study of earth and all that appears upon it. Physical Geography is one of the three disciplines of Geography. Physical Geography is the branch of natural science where we study different processes and physical characteristics of the earth like its seasons, climate, topography, streams, soil, etc. This helps us to analyze and understand our world better. Under physical geography, we mainly try to understand the lithosphere (surface layer), the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), and the biosphere (living organisms)—and the relationships between these parts. We understand natural forces like soil erosion, precipitation, landslides, etc, and the multiple subsystems of the environment and their connections with human activity.
Physical Geography can be sub-divided into the following :
Lithosphere – It refers to the solid outer part of the earth. We study the differences in types of soil, landforms, etc., and earth movements, volcanoes, and earthquakes under the lithosphere. The lithosphere extends from the surface of Earth to a depth of about 44-62 mi (70-100 km).
Atmosphere – The vast expanse of air that envelops the earth all around is called the atmosphere. It contains life-saving gases like oxygen for man and animals and carbon dioxide for plants. It acts as a greenhouse by trapping the heat. Like the glass in a greenhouse, it allows short wave radiation to enter it and reach the earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere extends to thousands of kilometers. It is a mixture of various gases like nitrogen(78%), oxygen(21%) which together make up 99percent of the total air volume. The remaining one percent is for gases like argon, carbon dioxide, helium, etc.
Hydrosphere – Hydrosphere relates to 70% of the earth’s surface i.e. water. As such, it includes all water storage areas such as seas, oceans, lakes, ponds, streams, etc. there can be various formations that make the hydrosphere like oceans, surface water, groundwater, and glacial water. However, the oceans contain about 97% of the total water on the earth’s surface.
Biosphere – The Biosphere refers to that part of the earth in which all life forms exist. It is a shallow but extremely complex zone lying at or close to the interfaces between the three realms of the earth. I.e. the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. The organisms or life forms in the biosphere vary in size from minute bacteria to large whales or huge trees.
All the concepts of this topic <Physical Geography of the World> have been compiled into a Certification Assessment Course. This Assessment will help you to check and enhance your knowledge about the subject and offer you to get certified from The Growth Central VC. This Assessment has been made considering the latest scenario of the industry.